Surgical grade steel... The 316 series steel is considered 'surgical' because it's good enough to use on tools. In order to be implant grade, the ASTM states it must be 316LVM (316 series steel with low-carbon and vaccum molded) otherwise it's for surgical tools, not for surgical implants. Grade 23 titanium would be suitable for someone with 'sensitive skin' (which is really an issue of PH balance, but anyway) although it is a VERY stiff metal. So is 316LVM.. Unless you anneal it.

Finally, I must agree that Magister Frost is worthy of great thanks for his constant effort and vigilance. I cannot state that enough.

Royce A. Davis
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